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Perineural Metastasis to The Cranial Nerves in Head and Neck Malignancies


1.Ballantyne, A. J., McCarton, A. B. & Ibanez, M. L.: The Extension of Cancer of the Head & Neck Through Perineural Nerves. Amer J., 106:651-667,1963.

2.Carter, R. L., Foster, C. S., Dinsdale, E. A. & Pittam, M. R.: Perineural Spread by Squamous Carcinomas of the Head & Neck: A Morphological Study Using Antiaxonal & Antimyelin Monoclonal Antibodies. J. Clin. Pathol., 36:269-75, 1983.

3.Castillo, M., Hudgins, P. A., & Hoffman, J. G.: Optimal MR Imaging of the Peripheral Cranial Nerves During Routine Head Examinations. Clear Images, 4:1-11, 1990.

4.Crawford, S. C., Harnsberger, H. R., Lufkin, R. B. & Hanafee, W. N.: The Role of Gadolincoum DTPA in the Evaluation of Extracranial Head & Neck Mass Lesions. Radiol. Clin. North America, 27:219-242, 1989.

5.Cruveilhier, J.: Maladies des Nerfs. Anatomae Pathologique du Corps Humain, Paris. J. B. Bailliere. 1835-1848, 2nd Ed., Pt 35, P3.

6.Curtin, H., Williams, R. & Johnson, J.: CT of Perineural Tumor Extension: Pterygopalatine Fossa. AJNR, 5:731-737, 1984.

7.Daniels, D. I., Pech, P., Pojunas, K. W., et al: Trigeminal Nerve: Anatomic Correlation with MR Imaging. Radiology, 159:577-583, 1986.

8.Dodd, G. D., Dolan, P.A., Ballantyne, A. J., et al: The Dissemination of Tumor of the Head & Neck Via the Cranial Nerves. Radiol. Clin. North America, 8:445-461, 1970.

9.Goepfert H., Drichtel, W. J., Medina, J. E., et al: Perineural Invasion in Squamous Cell Skin Carcinoma of the Head & Neck. Amer. J. Surg., 148:542-547, 1984.

10.Hesselink, J. R., Heahy, M. E., Press, G. A., et al: Benefits of Gd-DPTA for MR Imaging of Intracranial Alenermalitier. J Cat., 12:266-274, 1988.

11.Kapinla, A., Chakeres, D. W., Blanco, E.: The Meckel Cave: Computer Tomographic Study. Part I: Normal Anatomy. Part II: Pathology. Radiology, 152:425-433, 1984.

12.Laine F. J., Braun I,Jensen M.E., et al: Perineural Tumor Extension through the Foramen Ovale: Evaluation with MR Imaging. Radiology. 174:65-71, 1990.

13.Lee, J. L., Castillo, M. & Nauert, G.: Intracranial Perineural Metastasis of Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of Head & Neck. J. Comput Tomog. 9:219-223, 1985.

14.Mark, G. J.: Basal Cell Carcinoma with Intraneural Invasion. Cancer, 40:2181-2187, 1977.

15.Mark, L. P., Yetkin, F. Z., Hendrix, L. E., et al: Visualization of the Distal Intratemporal Facial Nerve with MR Imaging: Use of an Oblique Plane. Radiology, 182:891-893, 1992.

16.Marsh, W. L., Allen, M. S., Jr.: Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma: Biologic Behavior in 38 Patients. Cancer, 43:463-67, 1979.

17.Scanlon, E. F., Volkner, D. D., Oviedo, M. A., et al: Metastalic Basal Cell Carcinoma. J. Surg Oncol., 15:171-80, 1980.

18.Stout, A. P.: Tumors of the Peripheral Nerve System. J Missouri Med. Assoc., 46:255-25, 1949.

19.Strauss, M., Cohen, C.: Perineural Invasion of the Facial Nerve: A Case Report with Extension From Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma Otolaryngal Head & Neck Surg., 89:831-835, 1981.

20.Trobe, J. D., Hood, C.I, Parsons, J. T. & Quiding, R.G.: Intracranial Spread of Squamous Carcinoma Along the Trigeminal Nerve. Arch Ophthalmic, 100:608-611, 1982.

21.Woodruff, W. W., Yeates, A. E. & McLendon, R. E.: Perineural Extension to the Cavernous Sinus From Superficial Facial Carcinoma; CT Manifestations Radiology, 161:395-399, 1986.


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