Introduction Section 1 Section 2 Section 3 Conclusion and References


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Section 1 - Direct leukemic involvement of the Central Nervous System

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Nonmeningeal disease: Head and Neck

Head and Neck/Orbit:
Leukemic masses may arise in a variety of head and neck locations. Rarely, chloromas may arise in the skull base (case 9). Generally the diagnosis of leukemia is known but as with leukemic masses elsewhere, they may precede the onset of systemic disease. Granulocytic sarcoma or other leukemic masses may involve the orbit, especially in children. Leukemic infiltration should be considered in the differential diagnosis of any pediatric orbital mass. Unfortunately, orbital leukemia is associated with a poor prognosis because of its relationship to other CNS disease and bone marrow relapse. Orbital leukemia may take the form of optic nerve infiltration, intra or extraconal masses (case 10), intraoccular involvement of the choroid, retina or anterior chamber, or infiltration of extraoccular muscles (case 11). In addition to the orbit, the paranasal sinuses are occasionally the site of leukemic infiltration. Imaging is nonspecific but the diagnosis should be considered in any leukemic patient presenting with a sinus mass.


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